Análisis del sector del biodiesel en Brasilsistema de certificación y evolución estructural

  1. PLANCHÊZ DE CARVALHO MARCOSSI, GISELE
Supervised by:
  1. Dionisio Ortiz Miranda Director
  2. Olga María Moreno Pérez Director

Defence university: Universitat Politècnica de València

Fecha de defensa: 05 December 2017

Committee:
  1. Eladio Vicente Arnalte Alegre Chair
  2. Almudena Gómez Ramos Secretary
  3. Isabel Bardaji Azcárate Committee member

Type: Thesis

Abstract

Biodiesel is an alternative renewable source of energy to fossil fuels generated by oils from several origins. Biodiesel productive chain has a relatively recent development in the world, and it prospered aiming at reducing dependence on fossil fuels and emission of pollutant gases. Differently from developed countries that emphasize the environmental aims (as in Europe), Brazil divulges social inclusions as a fundamental pillar of its policy, besides the diversification of energy matrix by making use of regional raw materials. Biodiesel production in Brazil is sponsored by the government by means of the Social Fuel Seal (SCS, in Portuguese), a certification system linked to the National Programme for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso de Biodiesel - PNPB) aiming at promoting economic and sustainable development. Focused on social inclusion, the certification and a series of tax benefits are granted to biodiesel processing industries that purchase raw materials from small agricultural properties. The aim of this Thesis is to analyse biodiesel in Brazil focusing both industrial structure and interdependence among farmers, agricultural cooperatives and industries stimulated by certification policies. Thus, the effects that the aforesaid policies have on the biodiesel value chain were analysed, tackling economic and government aspects. The first article is focused on the analysis of the evolution of the concentration of industries of the Brazilian biodiesel chain. So, several indexes of concentration were calculated and it was noticed how these indexes have evolved ever since biodiesel chain started in Brazil. The research was completed with several multivariant analytical techniques such as multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis aiming at understanding the basic structural characteristics of the industries that operate in the biodiesel chain in Brazil at present. The second study analysed the effects caused by the Social Fuel Seal on the relationship between biodiesel industry and small producers in several regions of Brazil. Based on a bibliographic review of scientific publications and researches carried out by national agencies, a map was made of the present situation of the biodiesel chain in several regions in Brazil. The results show that the Social Fuel Seal allowed the improvement in the insertion of family farmers in the value chain and in the sustainable rural development. However, the literature also points out gaps to attain these objectives such as incomplete compliance with employment legislation between family farmers and industries and difficulties concerning the diversification of raw materials (oleaginous seeds used in the production of biodiesel). During the third phase, an analysis performance was made, when of the Social Fuel Seal performance when secondary information was obtained with empirical evidence obtained during field research. The aforesaid analysis was mainly made in the state of São Paulo, and primary information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with industrial technicians, farmers, cooperatives and specialists in this sector. The aim was to investigate the effects of the certification on the participants in the biodiesel chain, and the results are shown in publication nº 3. In this article, the Social Fuel Seal, institutional arrangements, achievements and dysfunctions were discussed. The results call in question the fulfilment of the aim of social inclusion and the sustainability of the role of family farmers in the Program.