High-quality journalism in the face of Donald Trump’s theory of electoral fraudthe information strategy of the media in the 2020 US presidential election

  1. Concha Pérez-Curiel 1
  2. Ricardo Domínguez-García 1
  3. Ana-María Velasco-Molpeceres 2
  1. 1 Universidad de Sevilla
    info

    Universidad de Sevilla

    Sevilla, España

    ROR https://ror.org/03yxnpp24

  2. 2 Universidad de Valladolid
    info

    Universidad de Valladolid

    Valladolid, España

    ROR https://ror.org/01fvbaw18

Journal:
El profesional de la información

ISSN: 1386-6710 1699-2407

Year of publication: 2021

Issue Title: Democracia / Democracy

Volume: 30

Issue: 6

Type: Article

DOI: 10.3145/EPI.2021.NOV.19 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openIdus editor

More publications in: El profesional de la información

Sustainable development goals

Abstract

The institutional political crisis is posited to be a great risk facing twenty-first-century societies. The instability of democracy, the increase in misinformation in electoral processes, and distrust by citizens are facts that are confirmed by studies such as The Economist Intelligence Unit (2018) or Freedom in the World (2018). In the context of the most recent US elections (3-Nov-2020), President Donald Trump initiated a dialog focused on an allegation of electoral fraud that mobilized the masses and culminated in an assault on the Capitol. In parallel, Twitter endorses the role of journalism (@ABC, @AP, @CBSNews, @CNN, @FoxNews, @NBCNews, and @Reuters) as a gatekeeper to lies on the Internet. The aim of this study is to determined how the media treated the electoral process on their Twitter accounts, analyze the strategies they followed to combat Trump’s fallacy, and verify the extent to which they contributed or not to the spread of the conspiracy theory. Using a general sample of tweets (n1 = 3,577), we applied a comparative content analysis methodology with a three-pronged approach (quantitative-qualitative-discursive) based on the use of keyword indicators (n2 = 34,430). The results confirm that the media offered verified content on the electoral process, using different sources and avoiding reproduction of Donald Trump’s delegitimization speech. In general, they engaged in a fight against the theory of electoral fraud, against disinformation, and against the polarization of citizens, which are factors that have marked a scenario of doubt about the future of democracy.

Funding information

Communication & Social Sciences research group (SEJ-619) of the University of Seville.

Funders

Bibliographic References

  • Ali, Muhammad-Yousuf; Gatiti, Peter (2020). “The Covid-19 (coronavirus) pandemic: reflections on the roles of librarians and information professionals”. Health information & libraries journal, v. 37, n. 2, pp. 158-162. https://doi.org/10.1111/hir.12307
  • Alonso-Muñoz, Laura; Marcos-García, Silvia; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2016). “Political leaders in (inter)action. Twitter as a strategic communication tool in electoral campaigns”. Trípodos, n. 39, pp. 71-90. http://www.tripodos.com/index.php/Facultat_Comunicacio_Blanquerna/article/view/381
  • Amado, Adriana (2014). “Los hechos y los dichos en las noticias: la polifonía del discurso periodístico”. Romanica olomucensia, v. 26, n. 2, pp. 143-156. https://doi.org/10.5507/ro.2014.017
  • Anthony, Laurence (2021). AntConc (versión 3.5.9) [software informático]. Tokio: Waseda University. https://www.laurenceanthony.net/software/antconc
  • Bakker, Ryan; Jolly, Seth; Polk, Jonathan (2020). “Multidimensional incongruence, political disaffection, and support for anti-establishment parties”. Journal of European public policy, v. 27, n. 2, pp. 292-309. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1701534
  • Balz, Dan; Clement, Scott; Guskin, Emily (2021). “Biden wins wide approval for handling of transition, but persistent GOP skepticism on issues will cloud the opening of his presidency, Post-ABC poll finds”. The Washington Post, 17 January. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/poll-biden-trump-republicans/2021/01/16/5e41c9ba-575b-11eb-a08b-f1381ef3d207_story.html
  • Bennett, W. Lance; Livingston, Steven (2018). “The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions”. European journal of communication, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 122-139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323118760317
  • Bennett, W. Lance; Pfetsch, Barbara (2018). “Rethinking political communication in a time of disrupted public spheres”. Journal of communication, v. 68 n. 2, pp. 243-253. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqx017
  • Bernicot, Josie; Goumi, Antonine; Bert-Erboul, Alain; Volckaert-Legrier, Olga (2014). “How do skilled and less-skilled spellers write text messages? A longitudinal study”. Journal of computer assisted learning, v. 30, n. 6, pp. 559-576. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12064
  • Caldera-Serrano, Jorge; Nuño-Moral, María-Victoria; Zapico-Alonso, Felipe (2004). “Las agencias internacionales de noticias como fuente de información audiovisual”. Scire, v. 10, n. 2, pp. 137-146. https://www.ibersid.eu/ojs/index.php/scire/article/view/1500
  • Carlson, Matt (2017). Journalistic authority: legitimating news in the digital era. Columbia University Press. ISBN: 0231174454
  • Carrasco-Polaino, Rafael; Villar-Cirujano, Ernesto; Tejedor-Fuentes, Laura (2018). “Twitter como herramienta de comunicación política en el contexto del referéndum independentista catalán: asociaciones ciudadanas frente a instituciones públicas”. Icono 14, v. 16, n. 1, pp. 64-85. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v16i1.1134
  • Casals, María-Jesús (2005). Periodismo y sentido de la realidad. Teoría y análisis de la narrativa periodística. Madrid: Fragua. ISBN: 8470741705
  • Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2018). “Research on political information and social media: Key points and challenges for the future”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 5, pp. 964-974. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.sep.01
  • Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2020a). “Impact of Covid-19 on the media system. Communicative and democratic consequences of news consumption during the outbreak”. El profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.mar.23
  • Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2020b). “Influence of media on the political conversation on Twitter: Activity, popularity, and authority in the digital debate in Spain”. Icono14. Revista científica de comunicación y tecnologías emergentes, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 33-57. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v18i1.1527
  • Cha, Meeyoung; Haddadi, Hamed; Benevenuto, Fabrício; Gummadi, Krishna P. (2010). “Measuring user influence in Twitter: The million follower fallacy”. In: Proceedings of the fourth international AAAI conference on weblogs and social media. AAAI Press, pp. 10-17. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.167.192
  • Chadwick, Andrew (2017). The hybrid media system: politics and power. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978 0 190696733
  • CNN (2020a). “Exit polls: national results”. CNN politics. https://edition.cnn.com/election/2020/exit-polls/president/national-results
  • CNN (2020b). “Presidential results”. CNN politics. https://edition.cnn.com/election/2020/results/president
  • Congosto, Mariluz; Basanta-Val, Pablo; Sánchez-Fernández, Luis (2017). “T-Hoarder: A framework to process Twitter data streams”. Journal of network and computer applications, n. 83, pp. 28-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2017.01.029
  • Crilley, Rhys; Gillespie, Marie (2019). “What to do about social media? Politics, populism and journalism”. Journalism, v. 20, n. 1, pp. 173-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884918807344
  • Dader, José-Luis (2014). “El periodista, entre el poder”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 69, pp. 637-660. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2014-1028
  • D’Heer, Evelien; Verdegem, Pieter (2015). “What social media data mean for audience studies: a multidimensional investigation of Twitter use during a current affairs TV programme”. Information, communication and society, v. 18, n. 2, pp. 221–234. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2014.952318
  • De-la-Torre, Carlos (2018). “Leyendo a Donald Trump desde América Latina”. Revista SAAP: Sociedad Argentina de Análisis Político, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 179-194. https://revista.saap.org.ar/contenido/revista-saap-v12-n1/SAAP_12_1-De_La_Torre.pdf
  • Duque, Eladio (2014). “Análisis de contenido mediante análisis de palabras clave: la representación de los participantes en los discursos de Esperanza Aguirre”. Mediaciones sociales, n. 13, pp. 39-73. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_MESO.2014.n13.49432
  • Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J. (2004). “Complementarity in consumption of news types across traditional and new media”. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, v. 48, n. 1, pp. 41-60. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4801_3
  • Enli, Gunn (2017). “Twitter as arena for the authentic out-sider: exploring the social media campaigns of Trump and Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election”. European journal of communication, v. 32, n. 1, pp. 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323116682802
  • Epstein, Edward-Jay (1975). Between fact and fiction: the problem of journalism. New York. Vintage Books. ISBN: 0394713966
  • Esser, Frank; De-Vreese, Claes H.; Strömbäck, Jesper; Van-Aelst, Peter; Aalberg, Toril; Stanyer, James; Lengauer, Günther; Berganza, Rosa; Legnante, Guido; Papathanassopoulos, Stylianos; Salgado, Susana; Sheafer, Tamir; Reinemann, Carsten (2012). “Political information opportunities in Europe: A longitudinal and comparative study of thirteen television systems”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 17, n. 3, pp. 247-274. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161212442956
  • Fajardo-Trigueros, Clara; Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén (2020). “La acción de la UE en España ante la ‘infodemia’ de desinformación por el Covid-19”. Revista de estilos de aprendizaje, v. 13, n. 26, pp. 19-32. http://revistaestilosdeaprendizaje.com/article/view/2153
  • Fernández-García, Francisco (2005). Érase una vez: la narración informativa en televisión. Universidad de Jaén. ISBN: 8484392767
  • Flowerdew, John; Richardson, John E. (eds.) (2017). The Routledge handbook of critical discourse studies. Taylor & Francis. ISBN: 1138826405
  • Fuentes-Rodríguez, Catalina (2020). Estrategias argumentativas y discurso político. Madrid: Arco Libros. ISBN: 978 84 7635 949 5
  • Gadde, Vijaya; Beykpour, Kayvon (2020). “Additional steps we’re taking ahead of the 2020 US election”. Twitter, 9 October. https://blog.twitter.com/en_us/topics/company/2020/2020-election-changes.html
  • Gerbaudo, Paolo (2018). “Social media and populism: an elective affinity?”. Media, culture & society, v. 40, n. 5, pp. 745-753. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443718772192
  • Gil de Zúñiga, Homero; Huber, Brigitte; Strauß, Nadine (2018). “Social media and democracy”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 6, pp. 1172-1180. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.nov.01
  • Gil de Zúñiga, Homero; Weeks, Brian; Ardèvol-Abreu, Alberto (2017). “Effects of the news-finds-me perception in communication: Social media use implications for news seeking and learning about politics”. Journal of computer-mediated communication, v. 22, n. 3, pp. 105-123. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12185
  • Gunter, Barrie (1997). Measuring bias on television. Luton: University of Luton. ISBN: 978 1 860205262
  • Habermas, Jürgen (2006). “Political communication in media society: Does democracy still enjoy an epistemic dimension? The impact of normative theory on empirical research”. Communication theory, v. 16, n. 4, pp. 411-426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00280.x
  • Jones, Jeffrey M. (2021). “Last Trump job approval 34%; Average is record-low 41%”. Gallup, 18 January. https://news.gallup.com/poll/328637/last-trump-job-approval-average-record-low.aspx
  • Kaiser, Brittany (2020). “I blew the whistle on Cambridge Analytica – four years later, Facebook still hasn’t learnt its lesson”. The independent.
  • Kovach, Bill; Rosenstiel, Tom (2007). The elements of journalism: what newspeople should know and the public should expect. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN: 978 0 307346704
  • Krippendorff, Klaus (2004). Content analysis. Sage. ISBN: 978 0761915454
  • Lee, Martin A.; Solomon, Norman (1990). Unreliable sources: a guide to detecting bias in news media. New York: Lyle Stuart book. ISBN: 978 0 818405211
  • Lee, Sangwon; Xenos, Michael (2019). “Social distraction? Social media use and political knowledge in two US presidential elections”. Computers in human behavior, v. 90, pp. 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.006
  • Levitsky, Steven; Ziblatt, Daniel (2018). How democracies die. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN: 978 1 524762940
  • Lockwood, James; Mooney, Aidan (2018). “Computational thinking in secondary education: where does it fit? A systematic literary review”. International journal of computer science education in schools, v. 2, n. 1. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED581487
  • Mammone, Andrea (2009). “The eternal return? Faux populism and contemporarization of neo-Fascism across Britain, France and Italy”. Journal of contemporary European studies, v. 17, n. 2, pp. 171-192. https://doi.org/10.1080/14782800903108635
  • Mancera-Rueda, Ana; Pano-Alamán, Ana (2014). “Las redes sociales como corpus de estudio para el análisis del discurso mediado por ordenador”. Janus: estudios sobre el siglo de oro, Anexo 1, pp. 305-315. http://hdl.handle.net/11441/60827
  • Manfredi-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Amado-Suárez, Adriana; Waisbord, Silvio (2021). “Presidential Twitter in the face of Covid-19: between populism and pop politics”. Comunicar, n. 66, pp. 83–94. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-07
  • Martínez-Albertos, José-Luis (1984). Curso general de redacción periodística. Barcelona: Maitre. ISBN: 8486153034
  • Martínez-Albertos, José-Luis (1989). El lenguaje periodístico. Madrid: Paraninfo. ISBN: 8428317283
  • Martínez-Nicolás, Manuel; Humanes, María-Luisa (2012). “Culturas profesionales del periodismo político en España. El discurso de los periodistas sobre la política y las funciones políticas de los medios”. En: Casero-Ripollés, Andreu. Periodismo político en España: concepciones, tensiones y elecciones. Tenerife: Sociedad Latina de Comunicación Social, pp. 47-65. ISBN: 978 84 15698098
  • Mounk, Yascha (2018). The people vs. democracy. Why our freedom is in danger and how to save it. USA: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978 0 674976825
  • Mudde, Cas (2016). “Europe’s populist surge: A long time in the making”. Foreign affairs, v. 95, n. 6, pp. 25-30. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309643775_Europe’s_Populist_Surge_A_Long_Time_in_the_Making
  • Munive, Mario (2016). “Periodismo de declaraciones: Cuando la prensa renuncia a ser el lugar de los hechos”. Conexión, n. 6, pp. 42-57. https://revistas.pucp.edu.pe/index.php/conexion/article/view/16456
  • Naderi, Nona; Hirst, Graeme (2018). “Automated fact-checking of claims in argumentative parliamentary debates”. In: Proceedings of the first workshop on fact extraction and verification, pp. 60-65. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W18-5509
  • Neudert, Lisa-Marie; Marchal, Nahema (2019). Polarisation and the use of technology in political campaigns and communication. European Parliamentary Research Service Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA). https://doi.org/10.2861/167110
  • Núñez-Ladevéze, Luis (1995). Introducción al periodismo escrito. Barcelona: Ariel. ISBN: 8434412640
  • Ott, Brian L. (2017). “The age of Twitter: Donald J. Trump and the politics of debasement”. Critical studies in media communication, v. 34, n. 1, pp. 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2016.1266686
  • Panetta, Kasey (2017). “Gartner top strategic predictions for 2018 and beyond”. Gartner. https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/gartner-top-strategic-predictions-for-2018-and-beyond
  • Palau-Sampio, Dolors; Gómez-Mompart, Josep-Lluís (2015). “Calidad y credibilidad, un binomio inexorable para el futuro de los medios”. Periodística, n. 16, pp. 11-28. https://raco.cat/index.php/Periodistica/article/view/321204
  • Pellegrini, Silvia; Múgica, María-Constanza (2006). “Valor agregado periodístico (VAP): la calidad periodística como factor productivo en un entorno medial complejo”. Palabra clave, v. 9, n. 1. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/649/64900101.pdf
  • Pennycook, Gordon; Rand, David G. (2018). “Lazy, not biased: susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning”. Cognition, v. 188, pp. 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011
  • Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Domínguez-García, Ricardo; Jiménez-Marín, Gloria (2021). “Public sphere and misinformation in the U.S. election: Trump’s audience and populism indicators in the Covid-19 context”. Journalism and media, n. 2, pp. 335-350. https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2030020
  • Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Limón-Naharro, Pilar (2019). “Political influencers. A study of Donald Trump’s personal brand on Twitter and its impact on the media and users”. Communication and society, v. 32, n. 1, pp. 57-76. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.32.1.57-76
  • Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén (2021). “Realities and challenges of a democracy in crisis. Impact of desinformation and populism on the media system”. In: Rocha, Álvaro; Barredo-Ibáñez, Daniel; López-López, Paulo-Carlos; Puentes-Rivera, Iván (eds.). Communication and smart technologies, ICOMA 2021. Smart innovation, system and technologies, v. 259. Singapore: Springer. ISBN: 978 981 16 5791 7 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-5792-4_10
  • Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén; García-Gordillo, Mar (2021). “Impact of Trump’s digital rhetoric on the US elections: A view from worldwide far-right populism”. Social sciences, v. 10, n. 152. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10050152
  • Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Velasco-Molpeceres, Ana-María (2020). “Impacto del discurso político en la difusión de bulos sobre Covid-19. Influencia de la desinformación en públicos y medios”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 78, pp. 65-97. https://www.doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2020-1469
  • Pew Research Center (2020). “Sharp divisions on vote counts, as Biden gets high marks for his post-election conduct”. Pew Research Center, 20 November. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2020/11/20/sharp-divisions-on-vote-counts-as-biden-gets-high-marks-for-his-post-election-conduct
  • Pew Research Center (2021). “Appendix A: Grouping outlets by audience ideology and grouping survey respondents by media diet”. Pew Research Center, 28 April. https://www.journalism.org/2021/04/28/biden-administration-100-days-appendix-a-grouping-outlets-by-audience-ideology-and-grouping-survey-respondents-by-media-diet
  • Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M.; De-Casas-Moreno, Patricia; Torres-Toukoumidis, Ángel (2016). “Dimensions and indicators of the information quality in digital media”. Comunicar, v. 24, n. 49, pp. 91-100. https://doi.org/10.3916/C49-2016-09
  • Rost, Alejandro; Bernardi, María-Teresa; Bergero, Fabián (2016). Periodismo transmedia. La narración distribuida de la noticia. Neuquén: Publifadecs. ISBN: 978 987 1549 99 3 http://rdi.uncoma.edu.ar//handle/123456789/15341
  • Roth, Yoel (2018). “Automation and the use of multiple accounts”. Twitter. Developer blog, 21 February. https://blog.twitter.com/developer/en_us/topics/tips/2018/automation-and-the-use-of-multiple-accounts.html
  • Rúas-Araújo, Xosé; Mazaira, Andrés; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ana-Isabel (2018). “Nuevos medios y medios tradicionales en la red. Espacios de opinión e interacción política en la era Trump”. Icono 14, v. 16, n. 1, pp. 86-113. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v16i1.1118
  • Salaverría, Ramón; Buslón, Nataly; López-Pan, Fernando; León, Bienvenido; López-Goñi, Ignacio; Erviti, María-Carmen (2020). “Desinformación en tiempos de pandemia: tipología de los bulos sobre la Covid-19”. El profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.may.15
  • Sánchez-Saus, Marta (2018). “Análisis de palabras clave en comunicación para el desarrollo y el cambio social: el caso de #comunicambio en Twitter”. Cultura, lenguaje y representación, n. 19, pp. 119-139. https://doi.org/10.6035/clr.2018.19.7
  • Sanz-Blasco, Rubén; Carro-de-Francisco, Cristina (2019). “Susceptibilidad cognitiva a las falsas informaciones”. Historia y comunicación social, v. 24, n. 2, pp. 521-531. https://doi.org/10.5209/hics.66296
  • Schulte-Cloos, Julia; Leininger, Arndt (2021). “Electoral participation, political disaffection, and the rise of the populist radical right”. Party politics. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068820985186
  • Silverman, David (2016). Qualitative research. London: SAGE. ISBN: 1473916569
  • Smyrnaios, Nikis; Rebillard, Franck (2019). “How infomediation platform took over the news: a longitudinal perspective”. The political economy of communication, v. 7, n. 1, pp. 30-50. https://www.polecom.org/index.php/polecom/article/view/103
  • The economist (2020). “Only a quarter of Republicans believe Donald Trump should concede”. The economist, 19 November. https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/11/19/only-a-quarter-of-republicans-believe-donald-trump-should-concede
  • The New York Times (2021). “Republican ties to extremist groups are under scrutiny”. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/29/us/republicans-trump-capitol-riot.html
  • The Washington Post (2020). “Exit poll results and analysis for the 2020 presidential election”. The Washington Post, 14 December. https://www.washingtonpost.com/elections/interactive/2020/exit-polls/presidential-election-exit-polls
  • Van-Aelst, Peter; Strömbäck, Jesper; Aalberg, Toril; Esser, Frank; De-Vreese, Claes; Matthes, Jörg; Hopmann, David; Salgado, Susana; Hubé, Nicolas; Stępińska, Agnieszka; Papathanassopoulos, Stylianos; Berganza, Rosa; Legnante, Guido; Reinemann, Carsten; Sheafer, Tamir; Stanyer, James (2017). “Political communication in a high-choice media environment: a challenge for democracy?”. Annals of the International Communication Association, v. 41, n. 1, pp. 3-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2017.1288551
  • Van-Dijk, Teun A. (2015). “Critical discourse studies. A sociocognitive approach”. Methods of critical discourse studies, v. 3, n. 1, pp. 63-85. http://www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Critical%20Discourse%20Studies.pdf
  • Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; Fombona, Javier; Bernal, César (2016). “Análisis computacional de las características ortotipográficas y paralingüísticas de los tweets periodísticos”. El profesional de la información, v. 25, n. 4, pp. 588-598. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2016.jul.08
  • Verdú, Yolanda (2009). Sesgo y encuadre en las noticias de televisión. Mecanismos de manipulación periodística a propósito del urbanismo y del agua en los informativos de Canal 9. Tesis doctoral, Universitat de València.
  • Waisbord, Silvio (2018). “Truth is what happens to news: on journalism, fake news, and post-truth”. Journalism studies, v. 19, n. 13, pp. 1866-1878. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2018.1492881
  • Waisbord, Silvio; Amado, Adriana (2017). “Populist communication by digital means: presidential Twitter in Latin America information”. Communication and society, v. 20, n. 9, pp. 1330-1346. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118x.2017.1328521
  • Wason, Peter C. (1960). “On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task”. Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, v. 12, n. 3, pp. 129-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470216008416717
  • Wodak, Ruth (2015). The politics of fear: What right-wing populist discourses mean. Londres: Sage. ISBN: 1446247007
  • Woolley, Samuel C.; Howard, Philip N. (2017). Computational propaganda worldwide: executive summary. Working paper. Oxford: Computational propaganda research project. http://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2017/06/Casestudies-ExecutiveSummary.pdf