Análisis multidimensional del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) mediante el método bifactor-ESEM

  1. Jonatan Frutos
Psicología conductual = behavioral psychology: Revista internacional de psicología clínica y de la salud

ISSN: 1132-9483

Year of publication: 2021

Volume: 29

Issue: 1

Pages: 95-110

Type: Article

DOI: 10.51668/BP.8321105S DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Psicología conductual = behavioral psychology: Revista internacional de psicología clínica y de la salud


In this study, different first-order and bifactor models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Nine models were estimated for a sample of 871 children (465 males and 406 females) aged between five and fourteen years old through a scale constructed with the 18 ADHD symptoms proposed in the DSM-5, completed by parents and teachers. The models were divided into five first-order models (CFA and ESEM) and four bifactor models (Bi-CFA y Bi-ESEM). The results indicated that both Bi-ESEM models show a better fit over the rest, with three specific factors showing the best fit with a strongly defined G factor.

Bibliographic References

  • Amador, J. A., Forns, M., Guardia, J. y Peró, M. (2006). DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: agreement between informants in prevalence and factor structure at different ages. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28(1), 23-32.
  • Asociación Psiquiátrica Americana (2014). Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales, DSM-5 (5.ª ed.). Buenos Aires: Editorial Médica Panamericana.
  • Arias, V. B., Frutos, J., Rodríguez, H. y Arias, B. (2019). Exploración de la estructura fenotípica del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH): subtip frente a continuo de gravedad. Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual, 27(1), 69-85.
  • Arias, V. B., Ponce, F. P., Martínez-Molina, A., Arias, B. y Núñez, D. (2016). General and specific attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder factors of children 4 to 6 years of age: an exploratory structural equation modeling approach to assessing symptom multidimensionality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 123-137.
  • Asparouhov, T. y Muthén, B. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 16(3), 397-438.
  • Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Future directions in emotion dysregulation and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(5), 875-896.
  • Becker, S. P., Leopold, D. R., Burns, G. L., Jarrett, M. A., Langberg, J. M., Marshall, S. A., McBurnett, K., Waschbusch, D. A. y Willcutt, E. G. (2016). The internal, external, and diagnostic validity of sluggish cognitive tempo: a meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(3), 163-178.
  • Burns, G. L., Geiser, C., Servera, M., Becker, S. P. y Beauchaine, T. (2019). Application of the bifactor S - 1 model to multisource ratings of ADHD/ODD symptoms: an appropriate bifactor model for symptom ratings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,48(7), 881-894.
  • Burns, G. L., de Moura, M. A., Beauchaine, T. P. y McBurnett, K. (2014). Bifactor latent structure of ADHD/ODD symptoms: predictions of dual pathway/trait-impulsivity etiological models of ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 55(4), 393-401.
  • Caci, H. M., Morin, A. J. y Tran, A. (2013). Teacher ratings of the ADHD-RS IV in a community sample: results from the ChiP-ARD study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(5), 434-444.
  • Chen, F. F., Hayes, A., Carver, C. S., Laurenceau, J. y Zhang, Z. (2012). Modeling general and specific variance in multifaceted constructs: a comparison of the bifactor model to other approaches. Journal of Personality, 80(1), 219-251.
  • DeMars, C. E. (2013). A tutorial on interpreting bifactor model scores. International Journal of Testing, 13(4), 354-378
  • Frutos, J. (2019). Los modelos bifactor vs los modelos factoriales mixtos en la estructura factorial del TDAH. Anuario de Psicología, 49(2), 57-71.
  • Garner, A. A., Peugh, J., Becker, S. P., Kingery, K. M., Tamm, L., Vaughn, A. J., Ciesielski, H., Simon, J. O., Loren, R. E. A. y Epstein, J. N. (2014). Does sluggish cognitive tempo fit within a bi-factor model of ADHD? Journal of Attention Disorders, 21(8), 642-654.
  • Gibbins, C., Toplak, M. E., Flora, D. B., Weiss, M. D. y Tannock, R. (2012). Evidence for a general factor model of ADHD in adults. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(8), 635-644.
  • Gomez, R. (2007). Testing gender differential item functioning for ordinal and binary scored parent rated ADHD symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(4), 733-742.
  • Holzinger, K. J. y Swineford, F. (1937). The bi-factor method. Psychometrika, 2(1), 41-54.
  • Jennrich, R. I. y Bentler, P. M. (2011). Exploratory bi-factor analysis. Psychometrika, 76(4), 537-549.
  • Jennrich, R. I. y Bentler, P. M. (2012). Exploratory bi-factor analysis: the oblique case. Psychometrika, 77(3), 442-454.
  • Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Lee, S. S. y Willcutt, E. (2005). Instability of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD from preschool through elementary school. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(8), 896-902.
  • Lee, S., Burns, G. L., Beauchaine, T. P. y Becker, S. P. (2015). Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms. Psychological Assessment, 28(8), 917-928.
  • Marsh, H. W., Morin, A. J., Parker, P. D. y Kaur, G. (2014). Exploratory structural equation modeling: an integration of the best features of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10(1), 85-110.
  • Morin, A. J., Arens, A. K. y Marsh, H. W. (2016). A bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling framework for the identification of distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 23(1), 116-139.
  • Morin, A. J. S., Tran, A. y Caci, H. (2013). Factorial validity of the ADHD adult symptom rating scale in a French community sample: result from the ChiP-ARD study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(6), 530-541.
  • Muthén, L. K. y Muthén, B. O. (2014). Mplus user’s guide (7ª ed.). Los Angeles (CA): Autor.
  • Nigg, J. T. (2012). Future directions in ADHD etiology research. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(4), 524-533.
  • Organización Mundial de la Salud (1992). CIE-10. Trastornos mentales y del comportamiento. Descripciones clínicas y pautas para el diagnóstico. Madrid: Meditor.
  • Reise, S. P. (2012). The rediscovery of bifactor measurement models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47(5), 667-696.
  • Reise, S. P., Bonifay, W. E. y Haviland, M. G. (2013). Scoring and modeling psychological measures in the presence of multidimensionality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(2), 129-140.
  • Reise, S. P., Moore, T. M. y Haviland, M. G. (2010). Bifactor models and rotations: exploring the extent to which multidimensional data yield univocal scale scores. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(6), 544-559.
  • Reise, S. P., Scheines, R., Widaman, K. y Haviland, M. (2013). Multidimensionality and structural coefficient bias in structural equation modeling: a bifactor perspective. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73(1), 5-26.
  • Rodenacker, K., Hautmann, C., Görtz-Dorten, A. y Döpfner, M. (2016). Bifactor models show a superior model fit: examination of the factorial validity of parent-reported and self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in children and adolescents. Psychopathology, 49(1), 31-39.
  • Rodenacker, K., Hautmann, C., Görtz-Dorten, A. y Döpfner, M. (2017). The factor structure of ADHD-different models, analyses, and informants in a bifactor framework. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 39(1), 92-102.
  • Rodenacker, K., Hautmann, C., Görtz-Dorten, A. y Döpfner, M. (2018). Evidence for the trait-impulsivity etiological models in a clinical sample: bifactor structure and its relation to impairment and environmental risk. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(4),659-669.
  • Schmitt, T. A. y Sass, D. A. (2011). Rotation criteria and hypothesis testing for exploratory factor analysis: implications for factor pattern loadings and interfactor correlations Educational and Psychological Measurement, 71(1), 95-113.
  • Sonuga, E., Bitsakou, P. y Thompson, M. (2010). Beyond the dual pathway model: evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 345-355.
  • Toplak, M. E., Sorge, G. B., Flora, D. B., Chen, W., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., Ebstein, R., Eisenberg, J., Franke, B., Gill, M., Miranda, A., Oades, R. D., Roeyers, H., Rothenberger, A., Sergeant, J., Sonuga-Barke, E., Steinhausen, H. C., Thompson, M., Tannock, R., Asherson, P. y Faraone, S. V. (2012). The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: invariant across age and national groupings? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 292-303.
  • Ullebø, A. K., Breivik, K., Gillberg, C., Lundervold, A. J. y Posserud, M. B. (2012). The factor structure of ADHD in a general population of primary school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(9), 927-936.
  • Wagner, F., Martel, M. M., Cogo-Moreira, H., Moreira, C. R., Pan, P. M., Rohde, L. A. y Salum, G. A. (2015). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensionality: the reliable ‘g’ and the elusive ‘s’ dimensions. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(1), 83-90.