Distribución sociométrica en Educación Infantilrazones de aceptación y rechazo a los iguales

  1. Luis J. Martín-Antón 1
  2. Paula Molinero-González 1
  3. Miguel A. Carbonero 1
  4. Wendy L. Arteaga-Cedeño 1
  1. 1 Universidad de Valladolid, Spain
Educación XX1: Revista de la Facultad de Educación

ISSN: 1139-613X 2174-5374

Year of publication: 2024

Volume: 27

Issue: 1

Pages: 323-332

Type: Article

More publications in: Educación XX1: Revista de la Facultad de Educación


Peer rejection has been widely studied in secondary and primary education, given both the present as well as future negative consequences it has on pupils. Nevertheless, the issue has thus far failed to receive as much attention with regard to younger children, despite the fact that infant education is a key stage, since it is when social relations are first forged and in view of fact that this period has a decisive influence on subsequent socioemotional development. This study seeks to ascertain sociometric distribution in the second cycle of infant education, taking into account gender, school year and whether or not pupils have specific educational support needs. We also explore the reasons given by pupils for accepting or rejecting their peers. The study involved 2,116 children from 105 classes spanning the three years of second cycle infant education. Using a sociometric procedure, we find that 11.5% of pupils suffer rejection, 8.3% are popular, 6.7% neglected, 2.5% controversial, and 71% average. The percentage of boys rejected is similar across the three years and is significantly higher than the figure for girls and for those with specific educational needs. A total of 11,989 reasons were cited, of which 7,876 were related to acceptance and 4,113 to rejection, and which were grouped into 34 categories. The principal reasons for acceptance are feeling affinity, enjoying shared games, and personality traits, whereas the reasons for rejection were physical aggressiveness, immature behavior, or annoying others. Girls cited more reasons related to affective reciprocity, whereas boys were less expressive or were not conscious of the causes. We discuss the educational implications to be taken into consideration in the classroom vis-à-vis boosting acceptance, integration and forging a positive atmosphere in the classroom and thereby preventing and reducing peer rejection.

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